Тактика игры в шахматах: основные понятия для начинающих

В понятии тактики в шахматах есть некоторая путаница. Не знаю, будете вы удивлены или нет, но понятия «тактика игры в шахматах» и «шахматная тактика» несколько различаются.

СТРАТЕГИЯ И ТАКТИКА В ШАХМАТАХ

Тактика игры – термин из военной терминологии. Что- то наподобие тактики проведения боевых действий. А именно, тактика включает в себя разработку, подготовку и реализацию боевых действий.

По сути – умение распоряжаться всеми имеющимися ресурсами.

Шахматная тактика – набор приемов для реализации стратегии в шахматной партии. Надеюсь, не слишком вас  запутал.

То есть, тактика игры в шахматах в широком смысле состоит из следующих составляющих:

  1. Стратегия – путь к достижению нужного результата в конкретной партии.
  2. Шахматная тактика – инструментарий для реализации стратегии.

Стратегия – планирование, тактика – претворение в жизнь. Стратегию игры мы обсуждали в этой статье.

Сегодня поговорим о тактике.

ШАХМАТНАЯ ТАКТИКА

Значение тактики в шахматной партии никак не меньше, чем стратегии. Пожалуй, даже больше.

Шахматист может хорошо оценивать позицию и составлять правильные планы. Но если он не владеет достаточным тактическим арсеналом, он не сможет их реализовать и довести до нужного результата.

Более того, цена тактической ошибки выше, чем стратегической. Если вы просматриваете мат в два хода, все ваши стратегические достижения мгновенно обесцениваются.

Во время партии тактические вопросы решаются шахматистом намного чаще, чем он сталкивается с вопросами стратегии.

Тактический арсенал

Мы с вами уже обсуждали различные тактические приемы. Двойной удар, вилка, связка — все это тактический арсенал шахматиста. Конечно неполный. Все эти приемы отрабатываются на практике.

ТАКТИЧЕСКИЕ ОПЕРАЦИИ

Тактической операцией  создается этап партии, включающий в себя последовательность (часто форсированную) ходов с определенной целью.

На этом этапе ходы имеют логическую последовательность. Каждый из которых может казаться непонятным, но все вместе они создают понятное целое.

Тактическая операция состоит из трех этапов:

  1. Нахождение идеи
  2. Расчет вариантов
  3. Оценка последствий

Одним из разновидностей тактических операций в шахматной партии является комбинация. По сути это тактическая операция с жертвами.

Все три составные части тактической операции одинаково важны. Например, оценка последствий. Важно видеть, не буду ли выгоды от комбинации перечеркнуты другими факторами. Например, вы выиграли пешку, но ваш ферзь оказался в ловушке.

Почти всегда возможность провести успешную тактическую операцию или комбинацию опирается на уже накопленные позиционные плюсы.

ПРИМЕРЫ  ТАКТИКИ НА СЛУЖБЕ СТРАТЕГИИ

Тактика в атаке

kombinatsia-pre

Черные успешно проводят план по «зажатию» королевского фланга белых. С помощью форпоста на е4 они перебросили фигуры для атаки.

По своему опыту скажу, что в такой позиции есть стойкое ощущение, что назрел тактический удар.

То есть, перевод позиционных плюсов в результаты. В данном случае результат видится, как матовая атака. Вопрос, какой вариант ведет к цели. Нетрудно убедиться, что прямые жертвы не проходят. И все же:

1…Лg3!!

2.fg  Если не брать ладью, решает жертва на h3.

2….Kg4+

3.Крh1 Ф:g3

и мат следующим ходом.

Тактика в эндшпиле

В эндшпиле важнейшая тема – превращение пешки. Именно с целью обеспечить проход пешки часто проводятся комбинации.

Например:

Кто сказал, что ладейные окончания не выигрываются?

1.Л:с2!! Л:с2 (на 1…Лd8 –2.Лс6 и Кре4 выигрывая)

2.d7  и пешку не удержать.

Типичный прием борьбы ладьи против ладьи в подобных позициях, — если черные на 1.Л:с2 играют 1…Ла8, то 2. d7 Крf7 3.Лс8!

и белые выигрывают.

Еще пример:

Как играть белым?

1.a5!!

Теперь у черных две возможности задержать пешку, но… обе наталкиваются на «тактику».

1. …Л:g4 2.a6 Лg1 3.a7 Ла1 4.Ла3!!

и белые выигрывают.

Второй вариант:

1. a5 Л:g4 2.a6 Лh4 3.Лd8!!

И после 3…Кр:d8 4.a7 пешку не удержать.

Скажу откровенно, — знать приемы эндшпильной тактики архиважно. Тактические возможности в эндшпиле встречаются чаще, чем это принято считать.

В заключение:

Как научиться тактическим навыкам?

  • Находить и запоминать точные позиции. Набор таких позиций должен постоянно пополняться. Это в некотором смысле конечные пункты ваших тактических операций.
  • Запоминать типичные приемы.
  • «Проигрывать» в уме различные тактические удары и комбинации. Дабы развивать пространственное воображение.

Ну и конечно практическая игра и анализ сыгранных партий.  Навык формируется только практикой.

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