Ладейный эндшпиль для начинающих шахматистов

Это довольно распространенное окончание в практической игре. В таком эндшпиле, как и в пешечном, итог зависит от расположения королей. Если король слабейшей стороны находится перед вражеской пешкой, легко достигается ничья.

ничейный ладейный эндшпиль

В ситуации, показанной на диаграмме, при ходе черных для достижения ничьей нужно играть 1… Лa6, чтобы не позволить королю белых пойти е6. Далее Черная ладья маневрирует по шестой горизонтали, пока пешка не продвинется вперед. Тогда ладья черных тотчас спускается вниз и дает шахи белому королю с тыла до троекратного повторения позиции:

1… Лa6. 2 Лf7 Лb6. 3 Лg7 Ла6. 4 d6 Ла1! (если 4. … Лb6? то 5. Кре6! и следующим ходом шах черные не поставят). 5 Кре6 Ле1+. 6 Kpd5 Лd1+. 7 Kpc5 Лc1+. 8 Kpb4 Лb1+. 9 Kpc5 Лc1+…

Если же в той же ситуации при своем ходе черные играют 1 …Ла5? 2 Кре6!, и белые выигрывают как после 2 … Лa6+. 3 d6 Kpc8 (иначе мат 4 Лh8). 4 Лh8+ Kpb7. 5 Kpe7 и белые проводят пешку или меняют новорожденного ферзя на ладью черных, так и после 2 …Ла1. 3 Лh8+ Kpc7. 4 d6+ Kpc6. 5 Лc8+ Kpb7. 6 d7 Лe1+. 7 Kpf5, и белый король уклоняется от шахов, не вставая при этом на вертикаль d.

Если в указанной ситуации ход белых, они играют 1. Кре6, и черным уже значительно труднее добиться ничьей, которая достигается одним единственным ходом 1… Лd2! Этим ходом черные могут добиться ничьей и при своей очереди хода.

* * *

Если король слабейшей стороны отрезан (отдален) от вражеской пешки не менее чем на две вертикали, пешка при поддержке своего короля и ладьи всегда проходит в ферзи при помощи маневра, именуемого «мост».

выигрыш с помощью моста в ладейном эндшпиле

На диаграмме ходы Kpd7 или Kpf7 не ведут к выигрышу, т.к. черная ладья будет шаховать с тыла до тех пор, пока король не отойдет от пешки или не вернется на е8. Однако малополезным на первый взгляд ходом 1 Лg4!! белые пресекают возможность бесконечных шахов:

1… Лd2. 2 Kpf7 Лf2+. 3 Kpe6 Лe2+. 4 Kpf6 Лf2+ (если 4…Лe1, то 5 Лg5! и 6 Лe5). 5 Kpe5! Лe2+. 6 Лe4! и пешка проходит в ферзи.

* * *

Рассмотрим весьма распространенные в партиях позиции, где проходная пешка дошла до предпоследней горизонтали, но для ее следующего шага, ведущего в ферзи, есть препятствие – собственная ладья на пути. Ладья не может подвинуться, поскольку пешка атаковано ладьей соперника. Тем не менее, в обеих ситуациях белые выигрывают сразу.

победный маневр в ладейном эндшпиле

Здесь все решает маневр: 1 Лh8! Л:a7. 2 Лh7+ с выигрышем ладьи.

Если бы черный король находился не на f7, а на g7, а поле h8 находилось бы под его ударом и было недоступно для белой ладьи, позиция была бы ничейной.

жертва ладьи с целью проведения ферзя

На этой диаграмме ход Лh8 не опасен для черных, но у белых есть иной способ выиграть – жертва ладьи и выигрыш темпа для превращения пешки.

1 Лc8+ Kp:c8. 2 a8Ф с теоретически выигрышным для белых эндшпилем.

Рассмотрим позицию, где пешка находится на 6й (для чёрных на 3й) горизонтали. Здесь поле а7, не занятое пешкой, может явиться для белого короля убежищем от шахов черной ладьи.

шахматный ладейник

1 Kpc4 Kpf7. 2 Kpc5! (ошибочно 2 a7?? из-за 2. … Kpg7! с ничьей) 2…Лc1+. 3 Kpb6 Лb1+. 4 Kpa7 Kpe7. 5 Лb8 Лd1. 6 Kpb7 Лb1+. 7 Kpa8 Лc1. 8 a7 Kpd7. 9 Kpb7 Лb1+. 10 Kpa6 Лa1+. 11 Kpb6 Лb1+. 12 Kpc5 Лc1+. 13 Kpd4 Лd1+. 14 Kpc3 Лс1+. 15 Kpb2, и белые выигрывают.

Подобные позиции, когда король сильнейшей стороны укрывается от шахов ладьи на предпоследнем ладейном поле (в данном случае) а7, а король соперника находится далеко от поля боя, ведут к выигрышу сильнейшей стороны (в данном случае белых).

* * *

Рассмотрим еще одну типичную позицию, когда король находится впереди проходной пешки, но выход на соседнюю вертикаль для него отрезан ладьей соперника, курсирующей по полям b. Если бы это была не ладейная пешка, белые легко выиграли бы ходом ладьи на четверную горизонталь и после выхода короля налево от пешки осуществили бы маневр «мост». Однако в приведенной ниже горизонтали ничья неизбежна. Если бы король черных был отрезан от пешки не менее чем на четыре поля, белые бы выиграли.

ничейный ладейник

Из приведенных примеров следует, что для достижения ничьей при короле, стоящем в углу перед своей пешкой, слабейшей стороне следует отрезать ему выход, расположив ладью на вертикали b или, с соответствующем случае, g, и занять своим королем идеальную позицию через одно поле на одной горизонтали с вражеской пешкой.

Подводя итоги обзора, автор учебника приводит ключевые установки для аналогичных эндшпилей:

  • Сильнейшая сторона должна стремиться держать свою ладью позади пешки.
  • При пешке, поддерживаемой собственным королем, необходимо отрезать короля противника ладьей от пешки хотя бы на 1-2 вертикали.
  • Слабейшая сторона также должна стремиться находиться позади пешки противника, чтобы не позволить того же ладье сильнейшей стороны и иметь возможность атаковать неприятельского короля с тыла.
  • Король слабейшей стороны должен стремиться встать перед пешкой. Если это невозможно, он должен расположиться как можно ближе к пешке, стесняя в маневрах вражеского короля.
  • В ладейных окончаниях с большим количеством пешек важно активировать свою ладью (даже ценой пешки), занять ей открытую вертикаль и при удобном случае вторгнуться в лагерь противника.

 

 

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