Шахматные комбинации для начинающих

При слове «комбинация» в сознании автора этих строк возникает образ Великого Комбинатора. Однако мы знаем, что в шахматах успехи Остапа Ибрагимовича оставляли желать лучшего. Шахматные комбинации получались у него значительно хуже, нежели в повседневной жизни.

Причина очень проста: комбинация в шахматах – инструмент. А инструмент, как известно, работает в умелых руках.

ЧТО ТАКОЕ КОМБИНАЦИЯ В ШАХМАТАХ?

Слово «комбинация» в словаре означает соединение, сочетание.

Комбинацией в шахматах принято считать сочетание  ходов с применением жертвы, которые объединены определенной идеей или целью. Используя специальную шахматную терминологию, – форсированный вариант.

Википедия предлагает нам достаточно разветвленную классификацию шахматных комбинаций: по мотивам, по объектам, по приемам, на отвлечение, завлечение и так далее.

Можно классифицировать комбинации и  по-проще: быстрые, матовые, лучшие, интересные, выигрышные.

С точки зрения практической  пользы, из всего этого многообразия, интерес представляет разве что классификация по результату.

Шахматист – практик, когда обдумывает ход или серию ходов, никогда не задумывается, как следует классифицировать его задумку.

То есть, он хочет добиться определенного результата, используя комбинацию. Шахматист никогда не думает так: «Я хочу провести комбинацию на завлечение». Он думает по другому: «Я хочу достичь выигрышной позиции. И вижу для этого путь — провести комбинацию.»

Он хочет с помощью комбинации:

  • Добиться выигранной позиции
  • Добиться ничейной позиции
  • Поставить мат
  • «Залезть» в пат
  • Кардинально изменить ситуацию на доске

Это неполный перечень целей для проведения комбинаций. Давайте не будем мудрствовать лукаво и посмотрим интересные примеры комбинаций.

ПРИМЕРЫ КОМБИНАЦИЙ

Комбинации далеко не всегда игра на мат.

1. Проходная пешка

Как использовать проходную пешку, когда ее намертво стережет белая ладья с поля g4?

1…g2 2.Лg4 Что дальше?

2…Лh4!!

Правильно, ее можно отвлечь, пожертвовав свою собственную ладью. А заодно и связать, чтобы уж никуда не делась. Черные  выигрывают.

2. Игра на пат

igra-na-pat

Черный король в положении пата. Отсюда идея комбинации.

1…Лf6! 2.Кр:b2 Лf2+

beshennaia-ladia

Ладья шахует по линии f до бесконечности. А если король подходит и бьет ладью, — на доске пат.

3. Игра на мат

Черные фигуры занимают неудачные позиции и перегружены защитой.

1.Лb8!!

Жертва ладьи и позиция черных разваливается, как карточный домик. При любом взятии ладьи следует мат.

4. Рентген

rentgen

Притаившийся слон на g7 нередко выполняет роль «рентгена». Эта позиция — типичный пример.

1…ef 2.gf K:e4! 3.de d3!

И белые несут материальные потери.

ЧТО ТАКОЕ КОМБИНАЦИОННОЕ ЗРЕНИЕ?

Комбинационное зрение – способность замечать комбинационные возможности в той или иной позиции.

Отчасти эта способность врожденная. Что-то вроде музыкального слуха. Он может быть абсолютным, хорошим или так себе.

Если способность так себе, ее можно развить до хорошего уровня с помощью тренировок. Решения комбинаций, анализа партий, наблюдением на игрой сильных шахматистов.

В шахматах комбинационное зрение улучшается вместе с повышением вашего мастерства и накоплением опыты.

КАК РАЗВИВАТЬ КОМБИНАЦИОННОЕ ЗРЕНИЕ?

Изучать названия и классификации – занятие познавательное, но по большей части бесполезное. Изучать и знать нужно другое:

Точные позиции

Когда мы точно знаем, как оценивается позиция, которая может получиться в результате хода, комбинации или варианта, — мы можем к ней стремиться.

Например:

Надо ли белым разменивать ферзей ходом 1.Фd5+? Смогут ли они выиграть партию?

Все зависит от того, как мы оцениваем позицию после форсированного 2…Ф:d5 3.Кр:d5

tochnaia-pozitsia

Эта позиция выигрышная для белых. Мы это ТОЧНО знаем и можем к ней стремиться. В том числе применяя различные комбинации, жертвы и прочие технические приемы.

Типичные приемы

Вилки, связки, двойные удары. Есть и другие приемы, мы их разбирали в отдельных статьях. Все эти приемы — спутники комбинаций.

Не важно, как называть комбинацию – отвлечением, завлечением или еще как. Важно, чтобы вы знали, как это делается и помнили об этом во время партии. Когда партия завершится вашей победой, — честь вам, хвала и очко в таблицу.

Победителем становится не тот, кто знает названия, а тот, кто умеет хорошо играть.

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