В какую фигуру превращается пешка в шахматах?

В любой игре есть моменты, которые ее украшают и надолго запоминаются. Даже зрителям, которые и правила зачастую знают только понаслышке. Превращение пешки – один из таких ярких моментов в шахматах. Когда и в какую фигуру превращается пешка?

КОГДА ПРЕВРАЩАЕТСЯ ПЕШКА?

Правило очень простое его очень легко запомнить: Пешка может превратиться в другую фигуру, когда доходит до конца доски.

Иными словами, когда  достигает последней горизонтали по ходу своего движения. Белая пешка – восьмой горизонтали, черная –первой.

Клетка, на которую ходит пешка, называется полем превращения.

pole-prevrashenia

На диаграмме поля е8 – поле превращения белой пешки, поле с1 — черной.

В КАКУЮ ФИГУРУ МОЖНО ПРЕВРАТИТЬ ПЕШКУ?

Пешка, достигшая поля превращения, может превратиться в любую фигуру аналогичного цвета, кроме короля. По выбору играющего. В ферзя, ладью, слона или коня. Теоретически может и остаться пешкой, но практически невозможно представить, когда такой ход имеет смысл.

Наличие уже имеющихся фигур на доске значения не имеет. То есть после превращения на доске может быть, к примеру, два и более ферзя одного цвета (теоретически -9!), три ладьи и так далее.

КАК ПРЕВРАЩАТЬ ПЕШКУ?

На практике это  делается так: Пешка продвигается на поле превращения, тут же снимается с доски. На ее место ставится выбранная фигура.

Выбор фигуры считается завершенным, если фигура, в которую превращается пешка, — коснулась поля превращения.

Замена пешки на фигуру делается немедленно, в этот же ход. Новая фигура активирует свои возможности также немедленно.

e8FX

Пешка превращается в ферзя, который дает мат этим же ходом.

Запись хода превращения пешки делается следующим образом: 1.d7-d8ФХ

Все операции по превращению пешки рекомендую делать одной рукой. Впрочем, как и все остальное в шахматах. Сильные шахматисты никогда не машут обеими руками во время игры.

КАКУЮ ФИГУРУ ПРЕДПОЧЕСТЬ?

По статистике примерно в 97% случаев шахматисты пешку превращают в ферзя.  Это легко объяснить: ферзь –самая сильная и ценная фигура.

Однако иногда возникают ситуации, когда целесообразнее превратить пешку в какую-либо другую фигуру.

КОГДА СЛЕДУЕТ ПРЕДПОЧЕСТЬ НЕ ФЕРЗЯ, А ДРУГУЮ ФИГУРУ?

а) Угроза пата

Ферзь — фигура, которая бьет полей больше, чем любая другая. Чаще всего это есть хорошо. Но бывают исключения.

Посмотрите на диаграмму:

Превращение пешки в ферзя приведет к ничьей. После 1. с8Ф? — на доске пат. Полагаю вы знаете, что это такое: у черного короля не полей для хода и он не находится под боем.

Поэтому белые играют сильнее, превращая пешку в ладью!

У черного короля есть поле для хода — а6. После чего белые ставят мат ладьей на поле а8.

б) Свойства коня

Иногда во время превращения самое время вспомнить про эксклюзивные возможности такой фигуры,  как конь. Один из характерных приемов мы рассматриваем в статье “вилка в шахматах”.

Другой пример:

После 1. с7-c8Ф Кв8-с6 борьба продолжается с нарастающей силой.

Однако… креативность в шахматах никто не отменял:

1.с7-с8 КХ

Как видите, все оказалось проще гораздо.

УГРОЗА СИЛЬНЕЕ ИСПОЛНЕНИЯ

Есть довольно расхожее выражение: угроза сильнее ее исполнения.

Превращение пешки часто становится кульминационным моментом партии. Пешка, которая добралась до седьмой (второй) горизонтали, волей-неволей начинает привлекать внимание соперника и вызывать беспокойство. Еще бы – один ход и она станет ферзем!

В позиции на диаграмме черные зорко стерегут проходную пешку противника. Если отходит белая ладья, пешка (гордость позиции белых!) остается без защиты и будет побита черной ладьей.

Черные хотят сыграть Ке3-d5 и выиграть пешку с7.

Однако, опасное для черных положение пешки в шаге от превращения, белые могут использовать иначе. А именно активировать угрозу превращения пешки, одновременно ставя перед черными другую угрозу.

1.Лс8 — е8!

ugroza-prevrashenia

Перед черными сразу две угрозы:

  1. превращение белой пешки в ферзя.
  2. под боем белой ладьи оказывается черный конь.

Отразить обе угрозы черные не могут. Из двух зол придется просто отдать коня, забрав пешку с7. После чего у белых две лишние пешки и выигранная позиция.

Этот пример характеризует большой потенциал проходной пешки рядом с полем превращения.

УПРАЖНЕНИЕ

Попробуйте решить задачку. Белые начинают и … выигрывают. Ответ чуть ниже, в конце статьи (не подглядывайте )

В заключение:

Красивые ходы бесспорно украшают шахматы. Однако красивый, «творческий» ход, — не всегда сильнейший. Дабы у вас не сложился чрезмерно «творческий» подход к вопросу превращения пешки, скажу следующее: В  97 случаев из 100 лучшим вариантом превращения является ферзь.

По умолчанию всегда планируйте превращение пешки в ферзя. Возьмите это за правило, чтобы не тратить много времени впустую. С опытом вы научитесь распознавать те редкие ситуации, когда пешку лучше превратить в другую фигуру.

ОТВЕТ НА УПРАЖНЕНИЕ:

Казалось бы ничто не может помешать черным провести пешку в ферзи и выиграть.

Однако, 1.Лd5!!

Белые замечают, что у них тоже есть опасная проходная и используют ее потенциал.

1…. Крс6:d5 (иначе белые забирают решку d2) 2. d6-d7!  и на 2… d2-d1Ф следует 3.d7-d8Ф+ !

Живописная картина. При полном материальном равенстве черные с чистой совестью могут сдаться. Они теряют ферзя.

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